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Doctoral studies

1. Introduction 
 
The Faculty of Mechanical Engineering from Kragujevac has a long years experience in realization of teaching at all levels of studies. 
 
The Faculty of Mechanical Engineering from Kragujevac was established in 1960. The first results were visible already after several years - on October 10th , 1964, the first diploma work was defended, on November 23st, 1968, the first master's thesis was defended and on June 24th, 1969, the first doctoral dissertation was defended. 
 
Curricula and syllabi of doctoral studies were formed and introduced according to the Law on University, in 1994. During 47 years, more than 90 doctoral dissertations were defended at the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering from Kragujevac. Thus, experience in working on realization of teaching at doctoral studies was used in forming the concept of study curriculum of doctoral studies according to the Law on high education. 
 
Quality of education at the faculty of mechanical Engineering from Kragujevac was confirmed by success and acknowledgment of graduated students of the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering from Kragujevac in the whole world, including the most developed countries. However, the most important fact is that experts educated at the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering from Kragujevac are the basis of highly educated technical experts in the region. 
 
The field of mechanical engineering is one of the most dynamic areas of European and global economy. Development of this field initiates the fundamentas changes in all fields of work and living. Mechanical engineering today represents outstandingly wide and interdisciplinary area of technical-technological sciences, so, practically there is no human activity where it directly or indirectly does not contribute to considerable development.  Mechanical engineering covers a very wide range of different technical systems, based on machine building, but applied in almost every field: agriculture, civil engineering, chemical and process industry, medicine, etc. This field is also closely connected with a series of interdisciplinary fields of other basic technical-technological sciences, especially with automatics, informatics, industrial engineering, mechatronics and materials. The field of mechanical engineering is the field of strategic importance for development of society. European Commission, together with the industry, is engaged in inducing development of new educational curricula in this field, as a precondition for development of information society. Continuous and fast development of this field is induced by new knowledge and achievements and it necessary asks for corresponding educational process. Basic precondition of faster development of society and for keeping up with developed world are just first-class educated experts and researchers. Knowledge and experience are expected of them from the field of engineering, with special accent on openness to new concepts and innovative solutions. 
 
Doctoral studies in mechanical engineering have the objective to educate researchers and experts for leading and the most complex jobs in the field of mechanical engineering at academic institutions, institutes, state and other public institutions. Law on high education and standards for accreditation of high schools establish the obligation of harmonization of study programs with Bologna declaration and also with relevant accredited study programs of well known technical universities and faculties in Europe and in the world. 
 
Education of students of the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering is realized through basic academic studies, lasting 6 semesters and 180 ECTS, and then through master academic studies, lasting 4 semesters and 120 ECTS. Continuation of the studies at the third stage is at doctoral academic studies, lasting 6 semesters and 180 ECTS. 
 
Proposed curriculum of doctoral studies in mechanical engineering is based on individual program. The student, with a help of a mentor and with corresponding selection of courses may be directed towards chosen narrow scientific fields or interdisciplinary research in the field of mechanical engineering. All offered courses are formed according to ECTS rules. Free selection of each course gives the students the opportunity to complete and deepen their knowledge according to their scientific interests. It is possible to select courses, that is to transfer ECTS from other accredited doctoral studies at institutions with which the Faculty of mechanical Engineering from Kragujevac has a defined contract on cooperation and student exchange. Such possibilities are understood within different accredited study programs of the University of Kragujevac. 
 
Development of the significant part of the industry and public activities in production oriented fields dominantly relies on researchers, scientists and experts of this profile. Thus, the more intense development of this field will strongly highlight a need for a larger number of experts from the field of mechanical engineering.
 
2. Competency of high education institution in realization of doctoral studies 
 
Teachers and associates at the faculty of Mechanical Engineering from Kragujevac actively monitor global and especially European trends in high education and industry development, when they develop study curriculum for doctoral studies. 
 
Doctoral studies at the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering are closely connected to modern scientific knowledge from the field of technical-technological sciences of the mechanical engineering. Proposed curriculum of doctoral studies at the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering presents a logical continuation of basic and master academic studies based on recommendations of the Bologna declaration and during which the students have gained fundamental knowledge from general and expert courses. By studying at the doctoral studies,  each student develops abilities for creative thinking and reasoning, for independent and team work. Through research activities, which are the goal of this study program, the students develop systematic and analytic approach to solving the problems, mostly based on studying and analysis of previous knowledge and achievements within the research field, published in scientific journals, proceedings of international scientific conferences and other sources of scientific information, including global reference bases of scientific data. From the students of doctoral studies, not less significantly, it is expected to carry out independent research, writing and publishing of scientific-research papers, participation at the international scientific conferences and presentation of the research results. This aspect of young scientist's education has a great importance at the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering from Kragujevac.  A series of international scientific and expert meetings is organized at the Faculty of mechanical Engineering from Kragujevac, including the International symposium Motor vehicles and motors that has a status of a congress since 2006. Beside this congress, the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering organizes also a Conference on tribology - YUTRIB, Festival of quality, etc.  
 
A fact of great importance is that teachers of the Faculty actively participate in development of scientific fields with participation and conduction of scientific research, publishing and presenting of the results at many world scientific meetings and in well-known journals. For more than 20 years, the international journals "Mobility & Vehicle Mechanics" and "Tribology in industry" are published at the Faculty of Mechanical engineering from Kragujevac. 
 
Scientific cooperation with known foreign scientific institutions is one of fundamental goals of the Faculty. The Faculty of Mechanical Engineering from Kragujevac actively participates in international scientific-research project (FP6, EUREKA, COST) and in programs of bilateral cooperation with the countries from EU and in EU programs related to perfection of process of high education within the united European education system (Tempus, WUS, RSDEP). 
 
The Faculty of Mechanical Engineering from Kragujevac has achieved numerous results during 46 years of existence: 103 doctoral dissertations and 225 master thesis were defended, 2903 graduated engineers and 1023 engineers have acquired their titles; 53 teachers (28 full professors, 14 associate professor and 11 assistant professors) are currently employed with full-time at the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering from Kragujevac. Doctoral studies at the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering were introduced in 1992, according to the Law on University and they are realized also today. 
 
Current ratio of number of teachers and teachers involved in scientific research projects is 53/49. 
 
Current ratio between a number of publications in international journals on SCI list in the last 10 years and a number of teachers is 62/53. It should be noted that the total number of papers on the SCI list and a number of authors is much larger if papers more than 10 years old are considered as it may be seen in The book of teachers and The book of mentors. 
 
Cooperation with similar institutions in the country is achieved as documented by the contracts on business-technical cooperation. The Faculty of Mechanical Engineering from Kragujevac has teachers with full time jobs that were mentors in realization of doctoral dissertations. 
 
3. Structure of the study curriculum 
 
Doctoral studies have 180 ECTS, with previously obtained study volume of at least 300 ECTS at bachelor and master academic studies. Doctoral dissertation is a final part of the study curriculum of the doctoral studies. 
 
Study curriculum lasts for 3 years, has 180 ECTS (50% of ECTS of which are for realization of doctoral dissertation), belongs to the field of technical-technological sciences and gives the academic title Ph. D. in Mechanical Engineering. Conditions for enrolment to the study curriculum and other the most important elements of the study curriculum and regime of the studies are prescribed by the Statute and the Rulebook on regime of the studies of the Faculty of mechanical Engineering from Kragujevac (available, in Serbian, at http://www.mfkg.kg.ac.yu/component/option,com_docman/task,doc_download/gid,276/Itemid,27/).
 
Study curriculum is individual. Each course that may be chosen by the student has 15 ECTS, each of them is structured through 2.5 classes of lectures and 7.5 classes of study research a week. It is possible to select a course, that is to transfer ECTS from other study curricula of doctoral studies at other accredited study curricula of doctoral studies of the institutions with which the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering from Kragujevac has a defined contract on cooperation and student exchange. By passing the exams, the students gain 90 ECTS. Course syllabus is given in The book of courses. 
 
Teaching methods depend on the type of teaching:
1) active teaching,
2) student's independent work,
3) working on a doctoral dissertation, etc. 
 
Active teaching is achieved through lectures and study research work. This teaching is achieved through constant contact between the students and the teachers. Lectures and consults are performed every week according to schedule. 
 
Lectures are the form of teaching in which the teacher interprets course educational contents to a group of students.  
 
Consults are performed individually or with the smaller group of students. At consults, the teacher is at exposal to the students, depending on their needs and interests for: giving learning instructions, giving additional explanations regarding study research work with directing to proper use of references, etc. 
 
Study research work encompasses all types of teaching that are in function of immediate qualifying of a student for research and writing scientific papers. These classes of active teaching enable the student to start working on a doctoral dissertation. 
 
Mentorship is a form of active teaching in which the teacher-mentor is in contact with a student regarding the working on doctoral dissertation and publishing the achieved results. 
 
4. Aim of the study curriculum 
 
Aim of the study curriculum is to educate the students in the field of mechanical engineering at the level of doctoral academic studies, that is to educate cadre qualified to independently lead original and scientifically relevant research and development of new technologies and procedures, contributing to general development of society and evaluating the research of the others. In general, the aim of the study curriculum of doctoral studies is development of science and critical thinking and is in accord with mission and aims of the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering from Kragujevac. 
 
These studies have more and more important role regarding the demands of work market because they give a final formal degree within the university education, which enables the students to perform the most complex scientific-research, control and engineering tasks. Demands for experts with high scientific-research level of competency, knowledge and skills are larger than before, both in the region and in Serbia and it is clearly visible considering the scientific development of the Serbian industry in conditions of open global market.
 
Study curriculum has a purpose to provide the finished students with education for leading and the most complex tasks in industry, research, development, services, consulting and organization, that is - in the field of engineering at high education institutions, institutes, state and other public institutions.  Development of significant part of industry and public activities department in the area oriented toward production, dominantly relies on researchers, scientists and experts of this profile. Thus, the more intensive development of this field will more strongly highlight the need for larger number of experts from the field of mechanical engineering. 
 
Doctoral studies enable inclusion of perspective young experts into modern streams of technological development of society. Technological development should directly contribute to the increase of the levels of education and knowledge in all parts of society, which is of strategic national interest. 
 
5. The outcome of the study curriculum 
 
Goals of the study curriculum "Mechanical Engineering" of doctoral studies at the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering from Kragujevac are: ­
 - to enable the students to develop analytical skills, critical way of thinking and leadership, 
 - to support, in general, the development of scientific thought and creativity in the field of mechanical engineering, ­ 
 - for students, to acquire necessary, up-to-date knowledge form the scientific field of doctoral studies and to master the methodologies for systematic and creative analysis of complex problems,  ­
 - to qualify the students to, independent and team planning and realization of scientific research and further development of professional knowledge and skills, ­
 - to qualify the students for preparation and publishing of scientific results according to the highest standards, ­
 - to enable the students to actively participate at international and domestic research and development projects, so thay can apply for projects independently, later,  
 - to qualify the students for dissemination of knowledge and then results of scientific research - both, horizontally and vertically, ­
 - to qualify the students for integration of the latest scientific findings and new products and services. 
 
6. Competencies of the finished students 
 
By overcoming the study curriculum of the doctoral studies, the students acquire necessary general and specific skills for quality performing of professional and scientific activities. 
 
The finished students acquire a scientific title "Ph.D. in Mechanical Engineering" and they are qualified for independent scientific research and have knowledge, skills, developed abilities and competencies:  1) to independently solve of practical and theoretical problems from the narrow scientific field of their doctoral dissertation and to organize development and scientific research; 2) to include themselves in realization of international scientific projects; 3) to realize development of new technologies and procedures within their professional skills and to understand and use up-to-date knowledge in given scientific field; 4) to critically think and act creatively and independently; 5) to respect the principles of ethical codes of good scientific practice; 6) to communicate at the professional level in presenting scientific research results; 7) to be able to present the results at scientific conferences, to publish them in scientific journals,  to present them through patents and new technical solutions; 8) to contribute to the development of scientific disciplines and of the science in general. 
 
By overcoming the study curriculum, the student the following course-specific competencies: ­
 - professional knowledge and skills in the context of the subject of doctoral dissertation and broader view on methodology of scientific-research in the field of technical-technological sciences, 
 - ability to solve problems with the use of scientific method and procedures, 
 - linking of basic knowledge form different fields and its application, ­
 - ability for independent scientific work and critical monitoring of scientific literature, 
 - ability of independent acquirement of knowledge and understanding of important concepts in broader domain of engineering sciences (concepts of modeling, experimental, simulation and analytical analyses of complex problems, design and organization principles), 
 - ability to follow modern achievements in the subject field, 
 - acquiring intellectual and practical skills: 
                               -  Intellectual skills: 1) development of analytical abilities, 2) adoption and application of methodology principles, 3) development of critical and scientific way of thinking, 4) ability to set a new and original research goal, etc.
                               -  Practical skills: 1) skills in applying information-communication technologies; 2) presentation and communication skills; 3) skill in writing reports, project applications, etc. 
 
7. Curriculum 
 
Curriculum of doctoral studies of Mechanical Engineering is presented on the web site of the Faculty and it provides the students with detailed insight in structure, programs and outcomes regarding knowledge, skills and abilities acquired during studies. 
 
A program of independent laboratory and research work, as well as a program of activities on realization and publishing of research results are given in the curriculum, together with basic courses for each field. 
 
Study curriculum of doctoral studies of Mechanical Engineering contains six elective courses, independent research work and work on doctoral dissertation.  
 
Each course is worth 15 ECTS, while work on doctoral dissertation, together with independent research work, preparation and defending of doctoral dissertation are worth 90 ECTS. By selection of corresponding six courses (divided in narrow scientific fields: mechanics, Motor vehicles, Energy and process engineering, Thermodynamics and thermotechnique, Applied informatics and computer aided engineering, production engineering, Automatics and mechatronics, Industrial engineering), from given list, the student  is preparing for research that will be the subject of his doctoral dissertation. All offered courses are formatted according the ECTS rules. The way of selection of courses and verification are defined in The rulebook on the regime of studies of the faculty of mechanical Engineering. Also, conditions regarding the preparation of doctoral dissertation within each field are defined.
 
According to the curriculum of the doctoral studies, all six courses are elective and in direct function of realization of selected doctoral dissertation. 
 
Doctoral dissertation must have defined subject of scientific argument. Thus, it is necessary, in the phase of preparation, to do a detailed review of narrow field determining the subject of doctoral dissertation.

Doctoral dissertation is a result of independent scientific and research work of the student. 
 
The student may propose the subject of doctoral dissertation after fulfilling the conditions given by study curriculum of the Faculty.  The subject of doctoral dissertation is selected from narrow field of the selected study program. The candidate applies for the subject of doctoral dissertation together with the evidence on fulfilling the conditions for application given by a study program.   Candidate must give evidence of having published scientific and professional papers from the scientific field from which the subject of doctoral dissertation is selected. Senate, after having acquired opinion of corresponding professional council or Council of the Faculty and according to procedure determined by the Statute of the faculty, determines a Commission for evaluation of the subject of the doctoral dissertation. Procedure for application, realization and defending of doctoral dissertation is defied in The rulebook on application, realization and defending of doctoral dissertation of the University of Kragujevac. 
 
Number of ECS for doctoral dissertation is included in the total number of 180 ECTS needed to finish doctoral studies. 
 
One-half of ECTS anticipated for realization of doctoral studies applies to doctoral dissertation.  
 
Table. Structure of the study curriculum of doctoral studies at Mechanical Engineering

 
I year II year III year
1st semester 2nd semester 3rd semester 4th semester 5th semester 6th semester
EC 1
15 ECTS
L+IRW
*
EC 3
15 ECTS
L+IRW
EC 5
15 ECTS
L+IRW

Preparation for application for doctoral dissertation

10 ECTS

Writing of doctoral dissertation

10 ECTS

Preparation for defending of doctoral dissertation

10 ECTS

Laboratory, research, publishing (paper for dissertation)

20 ECTS

Laboratory, research, publishing (paper for dissertation)

20 ECTS

Laboratory, research, publishing (paper for dissertation)

20 ECTS
EC 2
15 ECTS
L+IRW
EC 4
15 ECTS
L+IRW
EC 6
15 ECTS
L+IRW

 
EC – Elective course 
L – Lectures – 5 hours of active teaching per week
IRW – Independent research work of students (laboratory work, projects, seminar papers and other) 
 
8. Quality, actuality and international compatibility of the study curriculum 
 
Study curriculum follows modern global streams and the state of profession and science in corresponding educational-scientific field and is comparable with similar programs at international high education institutions within the European educational space. 
 
Study curriculum of doctoral studies is formed and conceived similarly to related study programs at known European universities: ­
 
 - Politecnico di Torino, http://didattica.polito.it/scudo/modulistica_en.html  ­
 
 - Politecnico di Milano, http://pcsiwa12.rett.polimi.it/~phdweb/eng/scuola/fr_scuola.htm  and ­
 
 - Czech Technical University in Prague, http://www2.fs.cvut.cz/web/
 
There is a signed contract on cooperation between the University of Kragujevac and Politecnico di Torino. The contract on cooperation was initiated by a long-term successful cooperation between the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering from Kragujevac and Politecnico di Torino. 
 
9. Enrolment of students 
 
Personnel, spatial and material means of the Faculty determine the number of students in open competition for enrolment to doctoral studies. 
 
To the first year of doctoral studies, the student that had finished the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering or some similar technical faculty, with previously achieved volume of studies of 3000 ECTS on bachelor and master academic studies and that have inclination toward study research work are enrolled. Enrolment to doctoral studies is performed once a year, in September, by the rule, based on open competition and success in previous education and after the testing of knowledge, vocation and abilities.  
 
Conditions for enrolment at the doctoral studies, one of which is knowledge of the foreign language, are defined in The Rulebook on regime of the studies of the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering from Kragujevac.  
 
Procedures for initiating the open competition and admitting the students are defined in the Rulebook on the regime of the studies at the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering from Kragujevac (available in Serbian, at  http://www.mfkg.kg.ac.yu/component/option,com_docman/task,doc_download/gid,276/Itemid,27/)   
 
10. Grading and advancement of the students 
 
The study program is individual and consists in selection of courses with total number of 90 ECTS. It is possible to select the courses from accredited study curriculum of doctoral studies at institutions with which the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering from Kragujevac achieves academic cooperation. 
 
Pre-exam responsibilities participate with at least 30 and at the most 70 points. By fulfillment of pre-exam obligations and by passing the exam, the student may achieve maximum of 100 points. The results achieved in pre-exam activities are written into the student's index. Condition for having the final exam is to achieve 51% of maximal number of points that the student may achieve during pre-exam activities. Student's grades on the exams are from 5 (not passed the exam) to 10 (excellent). The grade presents a sum of points achieved at pre-exam activities and on the final exam. The final exam is obligatory. In determination of the final grade, the grade of student's activities during classes (exercises, colloquiums, tests, seminar papers and other forms) and grades for knowledge shown at final exam are taken into account. After the classes are finished and after the final exam, the teacher determines the total number of the achieved points and form the final grade for each student.  The teacher or the examination commission gives the grades at the exam.  The grade is written into index, exam protocol, exam application form and into the student's register. The grade 5 (five) is not written into the index and in the student's register. 
 
The numbers of ECTS of the course and of the study research work are determined according the unique methodology for all courses at the faculty of mechanical Engineering.  
 
Doctoral dissertation is the result of independent study research in selected scientific field and represents a final part of the study curriculum that is accessed after the exams are finished and the thorough review of the narrow field of doctoral dissertation is conducted.  Defending of dissertation takes place after one paper is accepted for publication, or is already published in the journal from SCI list. The total achieved scientific contribution of doctoral dissertation is evaluated based on number of relevant scientific publications, patents and technical solutions.  
 
The manner and the procedure for defending the doctoral dissertation is established by the Rulebook on the regime of studies at the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering from Kragujevac, the Statute of the Faculty and by Book of regulations on application, working on and defending of the doctoral dissertation at the University of Kragujevac. 
 
11. Teaching staff
 
The procedure and rules for selection of teachers are defined by the Rulebook on election of teachers of the University of Kragujevac that is applied at the Faculty of mechanical Engineering from Kragujevac. 
 
Necessary number of teachers for conducting the lectures at doctoral studies is employed at the Faculty, according to the rules of the Standard for accreditation of study curricula of doctoral studies of the National Committee for accreditation. A total number of 12 full time teachers is currently engaged at doctoral studies, which represents 100% of totally engaged teachers at the study curriculum. Currently engaged teachers have at least 1 paper published in the journals from the SCI list in the last 10 years. Beside them, the Faculty has a larger number of teachers that meet the criterion of 1 paper on the SCI list and selected visiting professors, eminent in the fields relevant for doctoral studies. 
 
Necessary number of teaching staff that may be mentors at doctoral studies, having corresponding scientific and professional qualifications, according to competencies based on scientific papers published in international journals from the SCI list (according to standards of the National Committee for accreditation and quality assurance),  is employed at the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering. In last 10 years, each mentor has at least papers published or accepted for publishing in scientific journals from corresponding fields of the curriculum from the list of the Ministry responsible for science. In addition, the teachers that had qualified for teaching at doctoral studies according to decision of the Educational-scientific Board, will be engaged in realization of this study curriculum, after they present qualification proofs.  
 
All teachers that participate in realization of the study curriculum at doctoral studies are employed at the faculty of mechanical Engineering from Kragujevac and their number is more than twice bigger than minimal required number of teachers, according to criteria of the national Committee for accreditation, which may be seen in The Book of Teachers and The Book of Mentors
 
12. Organizational and material means 
 
The Faculty of mechanical Engineering has adopted a short-term plan (within the Annual plan for current year) and a five-year plan (2006-2011) of scientific research activities.  
 
By realization of different types of projects (domestic, international, in cooperation directly with the economy), independently or in cooperation with other high educational establishments, accredited scientific institutes and international organizations, the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering provides means for realization of doctoral studies and scientific research.  
 
The Faculty of Mechanical Engineering provides the students of doctoral studies with the use of equipment, basic and capital, that is in possession of the Faculty and that is necessary for whole scientific research work.  
 
The Library of the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering is a part of Serbian library consortium (KoBSON) and all electronic journals and databases are available for the students of doctoral studies at KoBSON web site  http://nainfo.nbs.bg.ac.yu/Kobson/page/ . In addition, within the KoBSON system of coordinated acquisition, the library of the faculty of Mechanical Engineering regularly receives the most significant foreign journals in paper form.  
 
The Faculty of Mechanical Engineering provides adequate space for realization of classes (auditoriums, laboratories and computer classrooms) and adequate equipment based on modern information-communication technologies.  
 
13. Quality control 
 
The Faculty of Mechanical Engineering from Kragujevac has appointed the Commission for quality assurance. Based on proposal of the Commission for quality assurance, the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering from Kragujevac has adopted standards and procedures for providing the minimal level of quality for every field of quality assurance given by self-evaluation standards and standards for evaluation of quality of high educational facilities, at the sitting of the Educational-scientific Board, on July 5th, 2007. The Statute of the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering anticipates the self-evaluation of the faculty and its curricula at least once in three years. Thereat, procedures are according to the document "Procedures for systematic monitoring and periodic evaluation of quality" that has been adopted by the Commission for quality assurance of the faculty of mechanical Engineering from Kragujevac and that is a part of the quality assurance system of the faculty of Mechanical Engineering from Kragujevac.
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